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Harley-Davidson Shovelhead & Evolution Big Twins 1970 - 1999Haynes Owners Service & Repair Manual

The Shovelhead try an air-cooled, 45 level, V-twin bike engine constructed from 1966 to 1985 by Harley-Davidson. Preliminary systems have an engine displacement of 1,208 cc (74 cu in). Approximately halfway through creation of the 1978 model 12 months, it was risen up to 1,340 cc (82 cu in) for a few of Harley's larger Twin bicycles. 1340cc, referred to by the business as 80ci., motors are recommended on FLH brands halfway through 1978 and through most of '79 before becoming standard products for FLH systems in 1980. These bikes were named FLH-80 Electra Glide II brands. FX model bikes continued to be offered with either 1200 or 1340 cc motors till 1981 when 1340cc, also referred to as 80 ci., is made standard over the gigantic Twin line.
Personalized Shovelhead Electra Glide

The "shovel" cylinder mind represented an offshoot associated with Harley-Davidson Knucklehead motor but featured a somewhat various search. The name was produced from the appearance of the rocker package covers. Since these covers bring to mind your head of coal shovels whenever inverted, title shovelhead was a normal development. The shovel engines driven Harleys up to the development of the Evolution motor in 1984, closing the reign for the "shovel" as fans regularly contact these engines. The shovel motor won't have protects, by itself, but rocker containers and rocker arms which pivot on shafts. The look offered more than a distinctive look; they created 10% most horse power as compared to panhead motor which it replaced. From 1966 through 1969 the shovelhead held the panhead design entry level. These early style shovelheads with the generator bottoms had been often referred to as slabside shovels. From 1970 in the shovelheads put an alternator base frequently called a cone shovel.

A number of 3rd party motor makers emit personalized Shovelhead-style engines, in a number of bores, many much bigger compared to original build displacements. Each producer include updates to the original design to enhance the overall performance and dependability while nevertheless providing the initial styling and general engine framework.

The terms longitudinal motor and transverse engine 're normally always relate to the crankshaft positioning, but some resources, more prominently Moto Guzzi, utilize the language when you look at the contrary means.

A Moto Guzzi Specialized service agent attempted to explain to Los Angeles days columnist Susan Carpenter that Moto Guzzi engines is "labeled as 'transverse' due to the fact engine try attached because of the crankshaft focused front side to right back as opposed to left to best." Regardless of this, maybe it's thought that those which call V-twin motorcycle machines "transverse" when they are mounted using crankshaft front-to-back in addition to cylinders sticking out the side assert that in their mind, the system's axis could be the line driving from cylinder to another, at a right direction into crankshaft, in place of supposed because of the crankshaft's axis. Really technical resources, like V. Cossleter's Motorcycle characteristics, or Gaetaeno Cocco's bike Design and tech were cautious not merely to use the terms "longitudinal motor" or "transverse engine," but instead to specify they mark the engine's orientation on the basis of the crankshaft, and so they will state "transverse crankshaft motor" or "longitudinal crankshaft engine", or, conversely, "transversely mounted cylinders" in referenced into the classic BMW orientation, with a longitudinal crankshaft and cylinders at a right perspective towards axis of this framework.
Transverse crankshaft installing
Honda 90 transversely mounted V-twin.

The system is mounted in transverse crankshaft position as on Harley-Davidsons, Ducatis and several current Japanese motorbikes. This layout produces a twin cylinder motorcycle engine which minimal wide than one. A narrower motor can be installed reduced in the framework with handling importance. A disadvantage for this configuration for air-cooled motors is the fact that two cylinders get different air-flows and air conditioning of the rear cylinder is commonly limited. Cooling difficulties become somewhat mitigated by having all "four" edges of every cylinder confronted with venting. This varies from a parallel-twin cylinder engine which has a definite front, straight back, and side, but the within each cylinder is not exposed to airflow given that cylinders are typically joined as well as a cam sequence operating up through the block in-between the cylinders.

Some transverse V-twins use an individual carburettor in the V-angle to feed both cylinders. While this enables an economy of components, it generates more cooling trouble when it comes to back cylinder by putting its hot exhaust interface and pipe at the back of the cylinder, out-of-the-way and/or atmosphere flow.

These big-twin motorbikes capitalize on Harley's powerful benefits on tradition. Aided by the rear-wheel suspension hidden beneath the transmission, they're aesthetically like the "hardtail" choppers well-known in the sixties and 1970s, including from their very own early in the day records. Consistent with that traditions, Harley provides Softail brands with "Springer" front stops and "traditions" design that incorporate build cues from in their background.


Softail versions utilize the big-twin system (F) while the Softail chassis (ST).

Softail designs that use 21" forward tires posses designations that begin with FXST, e.g., FXSTB (Night Train), FXSTD (Deuce), and FXSTS (Springer).
Softail products that use 16" forward rims need designations you start with FLST, e.g., FLSTF (Fat son), FLSTC (history Softail Vintage), FLSTN (Softail luxurious) and FLS (Softail Slim).
Softail models which use Springer forks with a 21-inch (530 mm) wheel have designations that start out with FXSTS, e.g., FXSTS (Springer Softail) and FXSTSB (Bad kid).
Softail models that use Springer forks with a 16-inch (410 mm) wheel have actually designations that start out with FLSTS, e.g., FLSTSC (Springer Vintage) and FLSTSB (cross-bones).

Principal article: Harley-Davidson Super Glide
2005 Dyna Super Glide Custom.

Dyna-frame motorcycles had been created into the 1980s and early 1990s and debuted in the 1991 design seasons using FXDB Sturgis available in restricted version quantities. In 1992 the range continuing using limited edition FXDB Daytona and a production design FXD Super Glide. The latest DYNA frame featured big-twin motors and conventional styling. They can be distinguished from the Softail because of the old-fashioned coil-over suspension system that connects the swingarm toward frame, and from the Sportster by their bigger machines. On these versions, the transmission additionally houses the engine's oil reservoir.

Prior to 2008, Dyna models usually featured a narrow, XL-style front side fork and front wheel, which the maker included the page "X" when you look at the model designation to indicate. This lineup traditionally included the Super Glide (FXD), Super Glide Custom (FXDC), Street Bob (FXDB), and minimum Rider (FXDL). One exemption is the Wide Glide (FXDWG), which maintained the width associated with XL forks and a narrow front wheel, but positioned the forks on broader triple-trees giving a beefier look. In 2008, the Dyna Fat Bob (FXDF) had been launched toward Dyna lineup, featuring hostile styling like a unique 2--1--2 exhaust, twin headlamps, a 180 mm back tire, and, the very first time in the Dyna lineup, a 130 mm front tire. When it comes to 2012 model season, the Dyna Switchback (FLD) became the first Dyna to break the traditions of experiencing an FX model designation: with detachable painted difficult saddlebags, touring windshield, bigger fork tubes, headlight nacelle and a wide front tire with complete fender. The new front side end resembled the big-twin FL designs from 1968-1971.

The Dyna family members put the 88-cubic-inch (1,440 cc) twin cam from 1999 to 2006. In 2007, the displacement ended up being risen to 96 cubic ins (1,570 cc) as the factory increased the swing to 4.375 inches (111.1 mm). For the 2012 model 12 months, the company begun to offer Dyna products because of the 103-cubic-inch (1,690 cc) upgrade. All Dyna models use a rubber-mounted motor to separate motor vibration.


Dyna versions utilize the big-twin engine (F), small-diameter telescopic forks just like those utilized on the Sportster (X) until 2012 whenever one design used the big diameter forks comparable to look at to those applied to the Touring (L) models, together with Dyna chassis (D). Therefore, except for the FLD from 2012 to the current, all Dyna brands has designations that start out with FXD, e.g., FXDWG (Dyna Wide Glide) and FXDL (Dyna Low driver).
Principal article: Harley-Davidson Sportster
2002 Sportster 883 Custom
2003 Harley-Davidson XL1200 Customized Anniversary Version

Launched in 1957, the Sportster family had been conceived as racing motorbikes, and were popular on soil and flat-track competition training through sixties and 1970s. Small and less heavy compared to the more Harley versions, modern Sportsters make use of 883 cc or 1,200 cc development motors and, however usually altered, remain close to look at to their race forefathers.

Up until the 2003 model year, the engine from the Sportster is rigidly attached to your frame. The 2004 Sportster obtained a unique framework accommodating a rubber-mounted system. This made the cycle weightier and decreased the offered lean direction, although it reduced the actual quantity of vibration transmitted towards the frame and the rider, supplying a smoother ride for driver and traveler.

In the 2007 design seasons, Harley-Davidson celebrated the 50th anniversary of this Sportster and created a restricted edition known as the XL50, that only 2000 were designed for sale internationally. Each bike was individually numbered and emerged in just one of two colors, Mirage Pearl lime or Vivid Black. Additionally in 2007, digital gas injection was introduced towards the Sportster household, therefore the Nightster design was introduced in mid-year. During 2009, Harley-Davidson included the metal 883 on Sportster line, within the black Customized show.
2014 Sportster XL1200C

In the 2008 model seasons, Harley-Davidson released the XR1200 Sportster in European countries, Africa, and also the Middle East. The XR1200 had an Evolution system tuned to create 91 bhp (68 kW), four-piston dual front disc brake system, and an aluminum swing supply. Motorcyclist featured the XR1200 regarding cover of its July 2008 issue and is generally positive about this in their "initially drive" story, for which Harley-Davidson was continuously expected to offer it in the United States. One possible reason for the delayed availability in the United States ended up being the truth that Harley-Davidson must obtain the "XR1200" naming liberties from Storz overall performance, a Harley modifying shop in Ventura, Calif. The XR1200 was launched in the United States last year in a special color scheme like Mirage Orange highlighting its dirt-tracker traditions. The initial 750 XR1200 products in 2009 had been pre-ordered and was included with a number 1 label for the front of bicycle, autographed by Kenny Coolbeth and Scott Parker and a thank you/welcome letter from the company, signed by Bill Davidson. The XR1200 is stopped in model year 2013.


With the exception of the street-going XR1000 of 1980s additionally the XR1200, many Sportsters designed for street use possess prefix XL in their design designation. The Sportster advancement machines made use of since the mid-1980s, there has been two system models. Motorbikes because of the smaller system tend to be designated XL883, while those with the bigger system are at first designated XL1100. Whenever measurements of the larger system is increased from 1,100 cc to 1,200 cc, the designation had been changed properly from XL1100 to XL1200. Subsequent letters within the designation relate to model modifications within the Sportster number, e.g. the XL883C relates to an 883 cc Sportster Customized, whilst XL1200S designates the now-discontinued 1200 Sportster recreation.
Principal article: Harley-Davidson VRSC

Introduced in 2001, the VRSC family members holds small resemblance to Harley's more conventional lineup. Competing against Japanese and United states strength bikes inside future power cruiser part, the "V-Rod" makes use of a system developed jointly with Porsche that, for the first time in Harley record, integrate overhead cams and liquid cooling. The V-Rod is aesthetically unique, quickly identified because of the 60-degree V-Twin motor, the radiator as well as the hydroformed framework people that offer the round-topped air cleanser cover. The VRSC platform has also been utilized for factory drag-racing motorbikes.

In 2008, Harley added the anti-lock braking program as a factory installed alternative on all VRSC models. Harley furthermore increased the displacement regarding the stock system from 1,130 to 1,250 cc (69 to 76 cu in), which had best formerly become offered by Screamin' Eagle, and included a slipper clutch as standard equipment.

VRSC versions incorporate:

VRSCA: V-Rod (2002--2006), VRSCAW: V-Rod (2007--2010), VRSCB: V-Rod (2004--2005), VRSCD: evening pole (2006--2008), VRSCDX: Night Rod important (2007--2014), VRSCSE: Screamin' Eagle CVO V-Rod (2005), VRSCSE2: Screamin' Eagle CVO V-Rod (2006), VRSCR: road pole (2006--2007), VRSCX: Screamin' Eagle Tribute V-Rod (2007), VRSCF: V-Rod muscles (2009--2014).


VRSC models utilize change system (VR), as well as the street variations were designated road Personalized (SC). Following the VRSC prefix common to all or any road transformation bicycles, the next letter denotes the model, either A (base V-Rod: discontinued), AW (base V-Rod + W for open with a 240 mm back tire), B (discontinued), D (evening pole: discontinued), R (Street Rod: discontinued), SE and SEII(CVO Unique version), or X (Unique version). Further differentiation within brands are formulated with an extra page, e.g., VRSCDX denotes the evening Rod specialized.

The VRXSE V-Rod Destroyer was Harley-Davidson's manufacturing drag racing motorcycle, built to run the quarter-mile in under ten seconds. It's based on the same transformation engine that capabilities the VRSC range, nevertheless VRXSE uses the Screamin' Eagle 1,300 cc "stroked" incarnation, featuring a 75 mm crankshaft, 105 mm Pistons, and 58 mm throttle bodies.

The V-Rod Destroyer just isn't a street appropriate motorcycle. As such, it makes use of "X" in place of "SC" to denote a non-street bicycle. "SE" denotes a CVO specific Edition.
Principal article: Harley-Davidson Road

The road, Harley-Davidson's most recent platform and their particular very first all new system in thirteen years, is made to appeal to more youthful riders to locate a less heavy bicycle at a cheaper price. The road 750 design was released in India on 2014 Indian Auto Expo, Delhi-NCR on 5 February 2014. The Street 750 weighs 218 kg and contains a ground clearance of 144 mm providing it the lowest fat while the greatest crushed clearance of Harley-Davidson motorbikes currently available.

The Street 750 utilizes an all-new, liquid-cooled, 60 V-twin motor known as the change X. In the Street 750, the engine displaces 749 cc (45.7 cu in) and produces 65 Nm at 4,000 rpm. A six speeds transmission is employed.

The road 750 while the smaller-displacement road 500 would be available in late 2014. Road series motorcycles the united states markets are going to be integrated Harley-Davidson's Kansas City, Missouri plant, while those for other markets worldwide will undoubtedly be built totally inside their plant in Bawal, Asia.
In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up tactics for a little engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches (116 cc) and four-inch (102 mm) flywheels. The motor had been designed for used in a typical pedal-bicycle framework. Throughout the next two years, Harley and his youth friend Arthur Davidson done their particular motor-bicycle with the northside Milwaukee device store on house of their friend, Henry Melk. It was finished in 1903 with the help of Arthur's bro, Walter Davidson. Upon testing their particular power-cycle, Harley and the Davidson brothers discover it unable to climb the mountains around Milwaukee without pedal assistance. They rapidly wrote off their particular very first motor-bicycle as a very important learning test.

Efforts immediately started on a brand new and improved second-generation machine. This earliest "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle have a more impressive engine of 24.74 cubic inches (405 cc) with 9.75 inches (25 cm) flywheels evaluating 28 lb (13 kg). The equipment's advanced loop-frame structure was like the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle (designed by Joseph Merkel, later on of Flying Merkel fame). Greater engine and loop-frame build took it regarding the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future bike designs. The boys additionally obtained assistance with their particular bigger engine from outboard engine pioneer Ole Evinrude, who had been after that design gas machines of his very own build for automotive utilize on Milwaukee's Lake road.

The prototype of this brand-new loop-frame Harley-Davidson ended up being assembled in a 10 ft 15 ft (3.0 m 4.6 m) drop inside Davidson families backyard. The majority of the significant areas, but had been made somewhere else, including some probably fabricated in the West Milwaukee railshops in which oldest brother William A. Davidson was then toolroom foreman. This prototype machine is functional by September 8, 1904, with regards to competed in a Milwaukee bike battle held at condition Fair playground. It had been ridden by Edward Hildebrand and placed 4th. Here is the earliest reported appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle inside historic record.

In January 1905, little adverts were placed in the auto and Cycle Trade log promoting bare Harley-Davidson motors into the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a tremendously minimal basis. That season, the initial Harley-Davidson supplier, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from five built in the Davidson backyard drop. Years later the original lose is taken fully to the Juneau opportunity factory where it can mean many years as a tribute toward engine Company's humble beginnings until it had been unintentionally destroyed by contractors washing the factory lawn during the early 1970s.

In 1906, Harley together with Davidson brothers built their particular very first factory on Chestnut Street (later on Juneau Avenue), in the latest location of Harley-Davidson's business headquarters. The very first Juneau Avenue plant had been a 40 ft 60 ft (12 m 18 m) single-story wooden construction. The organization created about 50 motorcycles that 12 months.
1907 design.
Harley-Davidson 1,000 cc HT 1916

In 1907, William S. Harley finished from institution of Wisconsin--Madison with a diploma in mechanical engineering. That year extra factory development included another floors and later with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow ("cream") brick. Aided by the brand new business production risen to 150 motorbikes in 1907. The company had been formally included that September. Additionally they began attempting to sell their motorcycles to authorities departments for this time, a market that is vital that you all of them since.

Manufacturing in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder systems with 26.84 cubic inches (440 cc) machines. In February 1907 a prototype design with a 45-degree V-Twin motor was exhibited on Chicago car Show. Although revealed and advertised, very few V-Twin models are built between 1907 and 1910. These earliest V-Twins displaced 53.68 cubic inches (880 cc) and created about 7 horse power (5.2 kW). This provided about double the power for the very first singles. Top rate is about 60 miles per hour (100 km/h). Manufacturing hopped from 450 motorbikes in 1908 to 1,149 devices in 1909.
Harley-Davidson works in 1911

By 1911, some 150 allows of motorcycles have recently been built in the United States -- although simply some would endure the 1910s.

In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was launched. The brand new engine had mechanically managed intake valves, instead of the "automatic" intake valves used on earlier in the day V-Twins that established by system vacuum. With a displacement of 49.48 cubic ins (811 cc), the 1911 V-Twin had been smaller compared to earlier twins, but provided better results. After 1913 the majority of bicycles made by Harley-Davidson is V-Twin versions.

In 1912, Harley-Davidson launched their patented "Ful-Floteing Seat", that has been suspended by a coil spring in the seat tube. The springtime stress could be adjusted to suit the driver's fat. More than 3 inches (76 mm) of vacation is readily available. Harley-Davidson would need seats with this type until 1958.

By 1913, the yellow stone factory have been demolished and on the site a new 5-story framework was in fact built. Begun in 1910, the factory along with its many improvements would occupy two-blocks along Juneau opportunity and nearby on 38th road. Inspite of the competition, Harley-Davidson was already pulling before Indian and would dominate bike racing after 1914. Manufacturing that season swelled to 16,284 devices.

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